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      “非婚生子女”“休產假”和“延長男性育兒假”這些英語怎么說_沈陽翻譯公司_沈陽圣金翻譯有限公司

      更新時間:2022-03-25

      返回首頁:沈陽翻譯公司_沈陽圣金翻譯有限公司_沈陽翻譯公司哪家好

      最近女性生育問題頻上熱搜,"鼓勵生育"也成為了今年兩會的一大熱議話題。我們看看這一話題的相關英文報道吧!
      01


      人口現狀

      Chinadaily原文:The Chinese mainlands population will stay above 1.4 billion for years despite a record low birthrate in 2021, but there is still an urgent need for new measures to encourage people to have children, experts said. The countrys birthrate fell to 7.52 births per 1,000 people last year, down from 8.52 in 2020 and the lowest since records began in 1978, according to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics.

      專家表示,2021年中國人口出生率創下新低,但大陸人口數量未來多年仍將保持在14億以上,不過仍亟需采取新的措施來鼓勵生育。國家統計局發布的數據顯示,中國人口出生率從2020年的8.52‰降至去年的7.52‰,這是1978年有記錄以來的最低水平。

      1. Stay:在這里是"保持;繼續是"的意思。來看個金融時報上的句子:Presumably the rate of pay will stay the same and, if the work is a bit less stressful than before, you should see that as a blessing. 你的薪水大概還會保持原有水平,如果工作比原來輕松了一些的話,你就應該把這視為一種恩惠。

      2. a record low表示歷史最低點,有記錄以來的最低水平。舉個金融時報上的例子:It is about 5 per cent, close to its record low. 目前美國失業率約為5%,接近歷史最低水平。

      "達到歷史最低點"搭配是hit/reach a record low。例如,"昨晚的氣溫降到了有記錄以來的最低點"英文可以說The temperature reached/hit a record low last night.

      a record low的同義詞是an all-time (record) low,a historic low。比如sixtone報道中這句:China’s birth rate has dropped dramatically over the years, with the country last year recording a historic low since its founding in 1949.
      3. 固定句型:there is an urgent need for sth.當個固定句型來記,意思是"迫切需要……,亟需……",比如世衛組織網站上的這句話:There is an urgent need for an equally competent model for maternal mortality reduction. 迫切需要采取同樣適合的模式以降低孕產婦死亡率。

      也可以說there is an urgent need to do sth.。舉個例子,"目前迫切需要逆轉這種下滑趨勢"英文可以說There is an urgent need to reverse this downward trend.

      4. 同義表達:the lowest since records began其實就是a record low的意思,都表示有記錄以來的最低水平。來看相關報道:

      The birthrate last year was 8.52 births per thousand people, the lowest level since 1978, according to the yearbook, which was compiled by the National Bureau of Statistics and published over the weekend.

      5. 補充說明成分:down from ...表示從……將至,是補充說明成分。今天這個是對7.52 births per 1,000 people進行補充說明。這種補充說明成分很常見,可以引出數字對比、增長比例等等。

      人口普查:為什么越來越多的人不愿意生孩子?| 經濟學人精讀中就有詳細講過這個用法,復習一下:

      Births last year fell to 12m, down by nearly 20% from 2019.

      去年,中國新出生人口跌至1200萬,比2019年下降近20%。

      6. according to +data released by表示XX的數據顯示/表明,according to的用法見過很多次了!比如這篇經濟學人精彩表達:"熱鬧起來、風行、人脈、迷人的風采、如魚得水"英語怎么說?中這句:

      The global lift market was worth $73bn in 2018 and the share prices of lift companies have comfortably outperformed the capital-goods industry as a whole for years, according to Morgan Stanley, a bank.

      摩根士丹利的數據顯示,2018年全球電梯市場價值達730億美元,而多年來電梯公司的股價超過資本產品行業的整體水平。


      02


      原因

      Chinadaily原文:Zhai Zhenwu, director of the Population Development Studies Center at Renmin University of China, said the decline in Chinas birthrate is mainly due to the sharp decrease in the number of women of childbearing age and peoples unwillingness to have more children.

      中國人民大學人口與發展研究中心主任翟振武表示,中國出生率下降的主要原因是育齡婦女人數急劇減少以及人們不愿意生育更多孩子。

      1. 句子結構分析:Zhai Zhenwu said...是主干,the decline in Chinas birthrate is mainly due to...是said的賓語從句。the sharp decrease in the number of women of childbearing age和peoples unwillingness to have more children并列。

      2. birthrate:出生率。也可以分開寫為birth rate。

      3. 同義表達:be mainly due to意思是"主要原因是;主要是因為"。還可以說the main reason for is/was ...,largely because (of),比如經濟學人這句:The main reason for the switch is not to help save the planet by reducing Gaps carbon footprint, but to help save money. 這種變化的主要原因不是他們為了減少地球上的碳足跡,而是為了省錢。

      還比如19年6月CATTI三筆英譯漢真題中這句:But this outbreak has been much more difficult to control, largely because of the security situation in eastern DRC. 這次疫情更難防控,很大程度上是因為剛果(金)東部安全局勢不穩定。

      4. childbearing age:生育年齡。childbearing指分娩,生孩子。"育齡婦女"英文就是women of childbearing age。

      5. unwillingness to do:不愿意做某事。比如金融時報上這句:He describes this trait as "a very British stubbornness and an unwillingness to be pushed around" .他說自己的這種性格屬于"典型的英國式倔強,不愿任人擺布"。
      "不情愿/不愿意做某事"還可以說be reluctant to do,所以"不愿意生更多的孩子"除了這里的"unwillingness to have more children",也可以說reluctant to have more children。

      這里再補充幾個原因作為寫作素材,如為什么現在的年輕人越來越不愿意生孩子:

      the combination of economic pressures and the impact of the pandemic have discouraged people from wanting to have children. (Chinadaily)

      The report said that the high cost of raising children is one of the main factors preventing couples of childbearing ages to consider having a child. (sixtone)

      In megacities, the cost of raising children is mainly reflected in housing prices, which is one important reason that the fertility rate in big cities is significantly lower than medium-sized and small cities.

      Chinas declining birthrate in recent years has been driven by a decreasing number of women of childbearing age, changes in young peoples attitudes toward marriage and fertility, and rising child care costs, health officials said on Thursday. (ecns)

      "三孩政策"來了,網友卻說"民不聊生"!| 經濟學人精讀和人口普查:為什么越來越多的人不愿意生孩子?| 經濟學人精讀這兩篇在講三孩政策時同樣講到了越來越多人不愿意生孩子的原因,大家可以去看一看作為這篇的補充。


      03


      兩會代表提案

      這次有關"鼓勵生育"的提案有很多,篇幅有限,所以這里就選了其中兩個給大家看看,一是建議延長男性帶薪育兒假,二是建議允許30歲以上單身女性生育一胎。

      (建議延長男性帶薪育兒假)

      來看Tellerreport上的一篇報道,文章的標題是Giving men extended parental or paternity leave, how far is it from suggestion to reality?

      parental or paternity leave意思就是"陪產假,男性陪產假/育兒假",其中paternity指的是父親(身份),相對應的"母親(身份)是maternity";

      give men extended parental or paternity leave即"延長男性陪產假/育兒假",paternity leave也可以說male parental leave。這里extended是形容詞。它的動詞形式是extend,所以也可以說extend parental or paternity leave for men。

      看到extended,我們大家應該熟悉extended family大家庭,指家庭結構在核心家庭(nuclear family)基礎上還包括其他成員的家庭模式。nuclear family核心家庭是指由一對夫婦及未婚子女(無論有無血緣關系)組成的家庭,通常稱"小家庭"。

      Tellerreport原文:It is recommended to appropriately extend male parental leave, to force men to accompany women to take maternity leave for one month, and to increase the paid paternity leave for men to 30 to 42 days.

      建議適當延長男性育兒假,強制男性陪女性休一個月的產假,并將男性帶薪陪產假增加到30至42天。

      1. 句子結構分析:這句話是It is recommended to ..., to ..., and to ...的結構,三個不定式結構并列。注意最后一個to前面要加and。

      2. 固定句型:It is recommended ...是一個固定句型,表示"建議……",后面可以跟to do,常見的還有跟that從句,舉個例子,"建議你去咨詢醫生"就可以用這個句型,寫成It is recommended that you should consult your doctor.

      這里涉及到一個虛擬從句的語法點:It is recommended that ...,從句要用虛擬語氣,動詞形式為(should)+動詞原形,should可以省略,常見類似的還有suggested,required,requested,proposed等詞。

      3. 同義表達:總結一下"延長男性陪產假/育兒假"的英文表達,可以說give men extended parental or paternity leave,extend parental or paternity leave for men,extend male parental leave。

      4. Accompany sb. to do sth.表示陪某人做某事。陪某人去某地可以說accompany sb. to some place,例如,He accompanied her to Paris. 他陪伴她去巴黎。生活中常說的"有成年人/大人陪同"可以說be accompanied by an adult.

      還配有什么東西也可以用accompanied by ...來表示,比如在介紹餐桌上還有哪些食物時:
      這里拓展一下accompany的另一種用法,表示"伴隨;和……一起發生(或同時存在)",比如之前如何用小詞"suggest"寫出精彩句子?經濟學人小詞大用!這篇里有提到我們常說要男女平等,那肯定首先要確保男女在職場上平等,這個時候英語寫作中就可以寫到女性董事比例高會對公司有好處:

      Various statistical studies – from McKinsey to Ernst & Young– have suggested that higher female representation is accompanied by better financial and stock market performance.

      各類統計研究(從麥肯錫到安永會計師事務所)都顯示,女性董事比例較高的公司有更好的財務及股市表現。

      5. 固定表達:take maternity leave是固定表達,指"休產假"。"提前休產假"可以說take early maternity leave;"休產假"還可以說go on maternity leave,be on maternity leave。
      6. 男性帶薪陪產假/育兒假:the paid paternity leave for men。paid leave就是指帶薪休假。

      (建議允許30歲以上單身女性生育一胎)

      What China Reads上有一篇標題是It is recommended that single women over 30 years of age be allowed to give birth to one child的文章,這里又見到It is recommended that句型啦!句子中省去了should,即single women over 30 years of age (should) be allowed to give birth to one child.

      其中give birth to是固定表達,意思是"生育,分娩"。
      除此之外,give birth to還可以表示產生,使誕生,比如詞典上這句:It was the study of history that gave birth to the social sciences. 對歷史的研究孕育了社會科學。

      "生育"還可以用produce這個詞來表示,經濟學人上有句話是這么說的:At the benign extreme, a girls birth might simply not be registered, in the hope that next time the couple would produce a male. 一對夫婦如果生了女孩也許不會登記,寄希望于下次能生個男孩,這種情況還算是好的。

      接下來看看這條建議英文是怎么說的:

      What China Reads:It is recommended that society as a whole adopt a more inclusive approach to unmarried births and that the relevant legal policies be progressively improved to accommodate the wishes of older single women, to guarantee their reproductive rights and to treat their children equally in terms of residence, attendance at school and access to health care.

      提案原文:建議全社會以更加包容的態度對待未婚生育,逐步完善相關法律政策,滿足大齡單身女性的生育意愿,保障其生育權利,對其生育的孩子在落戶、就學、就醫等方面一視同仁。

      1. 句子結構分析:句子主干是It is recommended that ... and that ...;是兩個并列的that從句,第二個that從句的主干是the relevant legal policies be progressively improved,后面跟了三個并列的to do結構的目的狀語,即to accommodate、to guarantee以及to treat并列。

      2. society as a whole:全社會,整個社會,社會整體。2015年12月六級真題閱讀中有這么一句話:"I think ethically we are just worried about the patient in front of us and not trying to save money for the insurance industry or society as a whole," said Dr. Donald Jensen. 唐納德·詹森博士說:"我認為,從道德上講,我們只是擔心眼前的病人,而不是試圖為保險業或整個社會省錢。"

      3. adopt a more inclusive approach:以/采取更加包容的態度。Approach在這里指的是"態度",比如經濟學人上"持更加懷疑的態度"就用的是adopt a more sceptical approach。Adopt也可以換為take。當然adopt和approach搭配也可以表示"方法,途徑,策略"。

      4. unmarried births:未婚生育,非婚生子女。拓展一些相關表達:

      Most children born to women under 30 are born outside of wedlock. 30歲以下的媽媽大多是未婚生子。

      比如紐約時報中這句:在發達國家,非婚生子占新生兒的比重比1980年高出了3倍,已經達到了33%。In rich countries the proportion of births outside marriage has trebled since 1980, to 33%.

      還比如經濟學人中這兩句:

      Similar trends can be seen across the wealthy world: the average out-of-wedlock birth rate for OECD countries is 40%. 類似的趨勢在富裕國家普遍可見:經合組織成員國的平均非婚生育率為40%。

      美國和歐洲的許多伴侶現在同居而不結婚,而且有大批并且越來越多的孩子是非婚生子女。Many couples in America and Europe now cohabit rather than marry, and a large and growing proportion of children are born out of wedlock.

      還有2015年11月CATTI三級筆譯實務真題英譯漢中這句:In 2012, 35.1% of births were to unmarried women. 2012年該國非婚生育率/非婚生子女占比達35.1%。

      5. 注意,and that the relevant legal policies be progressively improved to中,and that的這個that不能丟。

      6. accommodate the wishes of當做一個固定表達來記,意思是"滿足……的愿望"。
      Accommodate還可以表示適應(新情況),后面常跟介詞to,例如"需要適應新的時間表"就可以說accommodate to the new schedule.

      7. reproductive rights:生育權。

      8. attendance at school:指上學,就學。舉個例子,"老師必須記錄學生的出勤情況"這句話中"出勤"就是attendance這個詞,整句話可以說Teachers must keep a record of students attendances.

      9. access to:有權使用,可獲得。這個短語的用法很靈活,access to health care就是指獲得醫療保健服務。比如2015年6月六級真題信息匹配題中這句:Today, access to health care is among the most universally accepted rights, at least in the advanced countries. 如今,獲得醫療保健服務是最普遍公認的權利之一,至少在發達國家是這樣。

      電子游戲是"精神鴉片"?| 經濟學人寫作句型這篇有著重講到access在寫作中的靈活使用,再復習一下:

      比如在英語寫作中提到雙減促進教育公平的時候,我們就可以說"Educational fairness is most important in ensuring equal access to opportunities. 機會公平中,教育公平是最大的公平。"

      在英語寫作中要提到節約用水,我們就可以說"More than 300 million people lack access to clean drinking water. 超過3億人口喝不上清潔的飲用水。"

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