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      《魷魚游戲》為何能引發共鳴

      更新時間:2022-04-03

      紐約時報上有篇文章講《魷魚游戲》,我挑選了幾段適合學習的片段。

      01


      原文:"Squid Game" has also tapped a sense familiar to people in the United States, Western Europe and other places, that prosperity in nominally rich countries has become increasingly difficult to achieve, as wealth disparities widen and home prices rise past affordable levels.

      修訂后的管譯:《魷魚游戲》觸及到了美國、西歐等各地人們習以為常的認知,即隨著貧富差距擴大,房價上漲到無法承受的水平,在名義上的富裕國家要實現富裕已經越來越難。

      1. 句子結構分析:這句主干是"Squid Game" has also tapped a sense;familiar to people in the United States, Western Europe and other places是sense的后置定語,that prosperity in nominally rich countries...是that引導的同位語從句,具體說明a sense的內容,as wealth disparities widen and home prices rise past affordable levels是伴隨狀語。

      2. tap:本意是挖掘,這里結合語境引申為觸及。Sense在今天這里是認知的意思。

      3. 英語寫作句型:a sense of是"一種……的感覺"的意思,寫作中可以使用,如金融時報上這句:And for those away from the office, they may lose a sense of belonging to a team, or pick up resentment from colleagues because they are not physically present to manage unforeseen urgent issues. 對于那些不在辦公室的人,他們可能會失去一種團隊歸屬感,或者引起同事們的妒恨,因為他們不在場,不需要處理一些不可預見的緊急問題。

      還比如年輕人,你愿意背負沉重的房貸嗎?| 外刊精讀和英語寫作提到買房利弊時可以這么說:Home ownership provides people with a sense of physical and emotional security and safety. It is a personal space in which they can be themselves.

      4. 長難句等語法分析:今天這里使用了同位語從句,這種比較常見,如經濟學人中這句:With the three-child policy, the government is sending a signal that it is "moving very decisively to a pro-fertility policy", says James Liang of Peking University. 北京大學梁建章教授表示,隨著三孩政策的出臺,政府正在釋放一個信號:它正在堅定不移地實施鼓勵生育的政策。

      這句中,that后的句子是signal的同位語,對其進行解釋說明。

      5. 固定表達:sth be familiar to (sb)表示"某物為某人所熟悉",常見的sb be familiar with sth,表示"某人熟悉或通曉某事",如:Our aim is to allow student teachers to become familiar with the classroom。我們的目標就是讓實習教師熟悉課堂。

      6. nominally [n?min?li]:名義上地,如Nominally he is the boss。名義上他是老板。其形容詞形式是nominal,表示"名義上的",如the nominal leader of the party 這個政黨的名義領袖。

      7. widen:是wide的動詞形式。形容詞加后綴-en,可以變成動詞,如deep→deepen(加深,變深,加?。?,short→shorten(縮短)以及下文出現的worse→worsen(惡化)。

      widen變寬;(使)(差距)拉大。比如考研英語真題中這句:As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we’ve ever had. 因此,我現在相信未來幾年,數字鴻溝將會縮小而不是擴大。這是一個非常好的消息,因為互聯網很可能是我們有史以來對抗世界貧困的最有力工具。

      "差距"是CATTI和MTI翻譯考試的高頻考點。我們經常還看到"差距正日益增大"的翻譯,即a gap is opening between,a gap is opening up between, a gap is widening/yawning/growing between,如下圖經濟學人這句:

      圖片

      反義詞narrow也可以作及物動詞和不及物動詞,如close/narrow the finance gap 彌合金融缺口。比如年輕人!社交圈為什么越來越???| 經濟學人精讀一文中:Social circles generally narrow again as people find life-partners, form households and produce offspring of their own. 當人們找到人生伴侶、組建家庭、生兒育女時,社交圈子通常會再次縮小。

      8. 英語寫作句型:affordable是價格合理的、負擔得起的的意思。年輕人無力在大城市買房,選擇離開大城市,到房價不那么高的地方買房,就可以說:People are increasing willing to move out of big cities in search of affordable homes.


      02

      原文:South Korea boomed in the postwar era, making it one of the richest countries in Asia and leading some economists to call its rise the "miracle on the Han River." But wealth disparity has worsened as the economy has matured.

      管譯:韓國在戰后繁榮發展,成為了亞洲最富裕的國家之一,一些經濟學家將其崛起稱為"漢江奇跡"。但隨著經濟的成熟,貧富差距也在加劇。

      1. 句子結構分析:這句主干是South Korea boomed in the postwar era;making it one of the richest countries in Asia and leading some economists to call its rise the "miracle on the Han River." 是兩個并列的動名詞結構作結果狀語。

      2. 長難句等語法分析:making it...是結果狀語,比如金融時報中這句:He said the unit would reach close to 2m households this year, making it the worlds largest internet TV broadcaster. 他表示,該業務的家庭用戶今年將達到近200萬,成為全球最大的網絡電視廣播商。

      新能源!與化石燃料相比具有成本優勢 | 外刊回譯中也講過這種句型,比如CATTI和MTI備考資料報告中這句:經濟保持中高速增長,在世界主要國家中名列前茅。The economy has maintained a medium-high growth rate, making China a leader among the major economies.

      3. boom:作動詞表示"(貿易和經濟活動的)激增,繁榮",如By 1988 the economy was booming. 到1988年經濟一直很繁榮。作名詞表示"繁榮,激增",如 a boom in the economy經濟繁榮;a boom in car sales汽車銷售額的劇增。

      4. 固定表達:leading some economists to call its rise the "miracle on the Han River."是lead sb to do sth的用法,表示"導致某人干某事"。

      5. 固定表達:call sth sth/adj:意思是"把…描述為; 把…說成",如詞典例句The speech was interrupted by members of the Conservative Party, who called him a traitor. 演說被保守黨人士打斷,他們稱他是叛徒。

      6. 背景知識:Miracle on the Han River:狹義上漢江奇跡這一名詞指的是1953年至1996年間首爾經濟的迅速發展。

      7. worsen:既可作及物動詞也可作不及物動詞,作及物動詞表示"(使)變得更壞,變得更糟,惡化",如:Staff shortages were worsened by the flu epidemic. 由于流感,職員短缺的情況更加嚴重了。作不及物動詞表示"使惡化;使變得更壞",如柯林斯詞典中這句:The political situation is steadily worsening. 政治局勢在持續惡化。

      8. Mature:作形容詞表示"成熟的,明白事理的",作動詞表示"(情感和認識)成熟",還可以表示"充分發展"。文中the economy has matured是經濟成熟或充分發展的意思。


      03


      原文:The country now ranks No. 11 using the Gini coefficient, one measure of income inequality, among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (The United States is No. 6.)

      修訂后的管譯:在經合組織成員國中,韓國的基尼系數如今排在第11位,該指標是衡量收入不平等的標準之一。(美國排名第六。)

      1. 句子結構分析:這句主干是The country now ranks No. 11;using the Gini coefficient是狀語,說明ranks No. 11的依據,one measure of income inequality是the Gini coefficient的同位語。

      2. Rank:表排名的時候后面跟序數詞,但是不加the,如rank second排名第二。

      3. 背景知識:Gini coefficient美[?ko???f??nt]:基尼系數,是1943年美國經濟學家阿爾伯特·赫希曼根據洛倫茲曲線所定義的判斷收入分配公平程度的指標。

      4. 熟詞偏意:measure不是"措施"的意思,這里考察了它的熟詞偏義,英文釋義為 a way of judging or measuring sth表示"判斷;衡量",如Is this test a good measure of reading comprehension? 這種測試是判斷閱讀理解力的好方法嗎?

      作動詞也可以表示這個意思,如外刊中這句:Measured by its Gini coefficient, Singapore is among the world’s most unequal countries. 按基尼系數衡量,新加坡屬于世界上最不平等的國家之一。


      04


      原文:As South Korean families have tried to keep up, household debt has mounted, prompting some economists to warn that the debt could hold back the economy. Home prices have surged to the point where housing affordability has become a hot-button political topic. Prices in Seoul have soared by over 50 percent during the tenure of the country’s president, Moon Jae-in, and led to a political scandal.

      修訂后的管譯:在韓國家庭努力維持生計的同時,家庭債務也在積累,這促使一些經濟學家對債務可能拖累經濟發展發出了警告。房價飆升已經讓住房支付能力成為了一個熱點政治話題。文在寅總統執政期間,首爾的房價上漲超過50%,引發了一場政治風波。

      1. 句子結構分析:這句主干是household debt has mounted;As South Korean families have tried to keep up是伴隨狀語,prompting some economists to warn that the debt could hold back the economy是結果狀語,其中that the debt could hold back the economy是warn后接的賓語從句。

      下一句的主干是Home prices have surged to the point;where housing affordability has become a hot-button political topic是where引導的定語從句,修飾point。

      2. 文中keep up是不落后的意思,此處根據語境靈活處理為"維持生計"。

      3. Mount:名詞是山,作及物動詞表示"發動;爬上;安裝",如She slowly mounted the steps. 她慢慢地爬上臺階。作不及物動詞表示"爬;增加;安裝",如His debts were mounting up. 他的債務在不斷增加。

      4. 固定搭配:prompt sb to do sth表示促使某人干某事,如之前學過的這句:The delayed payments have prompted many landlords to evict tenants even when they have paid their rent in full to the platforms. 延遲付款導致很多房東驅逐房客,即使租客已經向平臺全額支付了租金。

      prompt還可作形容詞,表示"迅速的,立刻的",如Prompt action was required as the fire spread. 由于火勢蔓延,須要立即采取行動。

      5. 英語寫作句型:文中hold back the economy是阻擋經濟發展、拖累經濟發展的意思??吹竭@個,我想到了act as a drag on。我們知道現在人口老齡化速度在加快,這會嚴重拖累經濟發展,英語寫作中,我們就可以寫:An aging population acts as a drag on global growth.

      6. hot-button:表示"熱點;敏感的",也可以是hot button,近義詞是,如金融時報例句Meanwhile, the rising cost of housing has become a hot-button political issue in many cities. 此外,住房成本的不斷上升,已經成為許多城市的一個熱點政治問題。

      hot這個詞根表示"熱的,緊迫的",如hot-blooded熱血的;激動的;hot-tempered性急的;易怒的。


      05


      原文:"In South Korea, all parents want to send their kids to the best schools," Ms. Shin said. "To do that you have to live in the best neighborhoods." That would require saving enough money to buy a house, a goal so unrealistic "that I’ve never even bothered calculating how long it will take me," Ms. Shin said.

      管譯:"在韓國,所有的家長都想把孩子送到最好的學校,"辛譽恩說。"要做到這一點,你必須住在最好的社區。"這意味著要攢夠買房錢,這個目標太過不切實際,"我甚至都從來不去計算要攢多長時間,"她說。

      1. 句子結構分析:To do that中的that指代的是send their kids to the best schools;That would require saving enough money to buy a house中的that指前面的you have to live in the best neighborhoods,其中a goal指saving enough money to buy a house,其中a goal(which is) so unrealistic "that I’ve never even bothered calculating how long it will take me中省略了which is。

      2. 固定表達:require doing sth表示"需要作某事",如These young seedlings will require looking after carefully. 這些幼苗需要細心照料。

      3. 句子結構分析:a goal so unrealistic "that I’ve never even bothered calculating how long it will take me指saving enough money to buy a house, 這種增補名詞指前面某一部分的很常見,如金融時報中這句:This is possible only by increasing the money supply, a practice that sooner or later must blow up.只有通過增加貨幣供應才有可能做到這一點,而這種做法遲早會撐不住。

      4. 固定表達:so...that...表示"太……以至于……",如房子是用來住的,不是用來炒的 | 經濟學人精讀中這句 Demand for new homes in good locations is so high, and supply so limited, that several cities use lotteries to allocate them, some with odds as low as one in 60. 位置優越的新房需求高漲,而供應十分有限,有些城市用搖號的方式來分配這些房子,有些搖號搖中幾率低至六十分之一。

      5. 固定表達:don’t bother to do sth表示不想麻煩干某事,bother (about )doing 表示"花費時間精力做某事",如Don’t bother (about) getting dinner for me.請不必費事為我做飯了。

      6. 固定句型:it takes sb some time表示"干某事需要花多少時間"。


      06


      原文:The characters have resonated with South Korean youth who don’t see a chance to advance in society. Known locally as the "dirt spoon" generation, many are obsessed with ways to get rich quickly, like with cryptocurrencies and the lottery. South Korea has one of the largest markets for virtual currency in the world.

      管譯:這些角色在看不到上升機會的韓國青年中引起了共鳴。在韓國被稱為"土湯匙"一代的群體中,許多人癡迷于一夜暴富的方法,比如加密貨幣和彩票。韓國是全世界最大的虛擬貨幣市場之一。

      1. 句子結構分析:這句主干是The characters have resonated with South Korean youth;who don’t see a chance to advance in society是定語從句修飾South Korean youth,其中to advance in society是a chance的后置定語。with cryptocurrencies and the lottery中有with,說明是obsessed with后面的成分。

      2. 固定搭配:resonate with sb表示"引起誰的共鳴",如 These issues resonated with the voters. 這些問題引起了投票者的共鳴。還比如最新經濟學人是如何報道《你好,李煥英》的?中這句:At a time when many people have been separated from their families, the themes of grief and filial piety in "Hi, Mom" resonated. 春節期間許多人和家人未能團聚,《你好,李煥英》呈現出來的"悲傷"和"孝道"主題讓人們產生了共鳴。

      3. dirt spoon是golden spoon金湯匙的反義詞,表示"土湯匙"。

      4. 同義表達:advance相當于move upwards。

      5. lottery:常見含義是彩票,文中含義為"抽簽搖號"。如經濟學人在講到老年大學火爆的時候就用了這個:Several schools have adopted lottery systems, and others are first-come-first-served. 很多用的是抽簽搖號,而另一些則是采取先到先得。

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