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      Report on the Work of the Government

      ——2022 年 3 月 5 日在第十三屆全國人民代表大會第五次會議上

      Delivered at the Fifth Session ofthe 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2022

      國務院總理 李克強

      Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council


      Fellow Deputies,


      On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government and ask for your deliberation and approval. I also ask members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) for their comments.

      2021 年工作回顧

      I. A Review of Our Work in 2021


      Last year was a milestone in the history of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and our country. The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core united and led the whole Party and Chinese people of all ethnic groups in accomplishing the following endeavors: We celebrated the centenary of the Communist Party of China; The 19th CPC Central Committee convened its sixth plenary session where a resolution on the Party’s major achievements and historical experience over the past century was adopted; We declared victory in the critical battle against poverty as envisaged; and We achieved the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects on schedule and began a new journey toward the second centenary goal of building a modern socialist country in all respects.


      Last year, facing complicated and challenging circumstances both in and outside of China, as well as many risks and challenges, all of us throughout the country worked hard as one. We responded to Covid-19 and pursued economic and social development in a well-coordinated way, accomplished the main targets and tasks for the year, got the 14th Five-Year Plan off to a good start, and once again secured new and major achievements in our country’s development.

      ——經濟保持恢復發展。國內生產總值達到 114 萬億元,增長 8.1%。全國財政收入突破 20萬億元,增長 10.7%。城鎮新增就業1269 萬人,城鎮調查失業率平均為 5.1%。居民消費價格上漲0.9%。國際收支基本平衡。

      —The economy continued to recover and grow. China’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached 114 trillion yuan, growing 8.1 percent. National fiscal revenue exceeded 20 trillion yuan, growing 10.7 percent. A total of 12.69 million urban jobs were added, and the average surveyed unemployment rate stood at 5.1 percent. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 0.9 percent. A basic equilibrium was maintained in the balance of payments.


      —China’s innovation capacity was strengthened. Our strategic science and technology capabilities were expanded at a faster pace. Major advances were registered in research on core technologies in key fields, and breakthroughs were made in manned spaceflight, Mars exploration, resource exploration, energy projects and other areas. Corporate spending on research and development grew by 15.5 percent. Integration of digital technology in the real economy was accelerated.

      ——經濟結構和區域布局繼續優化。糧食產量 1.37 萬億斤,創歷史新高。高技術制造業增加值增長18.2%,信息技術服務等生產性服務業較快發展,產業鏈韌性得到提升。區域發展戰略有效實施,新型城鎮化扎實推進。

      —The economic structure and regional development priorities were refined. Grain output reached a record high of 685 million metric tons. Value-added of the high-tech manufacturing sector grew by 18.2 percent, IT services and other producer services recorded rapid growth, and industrial chains became more resilient. Regional development strategies were well implemented, and new urbanization was steadily advanced.

      ——改革開放不斷深化。在重要領域和關鍵環節推出一批重大改革舉措,供給側結構性改革深入推進。"放管服"改革取得新進展。市場主體總量超過 1.5 億戶。高質量共建"一帶一路"穩步推 進。推動區域全面經濟伙伴關系協定生效實施。貨物進出口總額增長21.4%,實際使用外資保持增長。

      —Reform and opening up were deepened. In key fields and sectors, a full range of major reforms were rolled out, and supply-side structural reform was deepened. New gains were made in the reform to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. The total number of market entities surpassed the 150-million mark. The Belt and Road Initiative saw steady high-quality development. China worked for the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. The total volume of trade in goods grew by 21.4 percent, and growth of utilized foreign investment was sustained.

      ——生態文明建設持續推進。污染防治攻堅戰深入開展,主要污染物排放量繼續下降,地級及以上城市細顆粒物(PM2.5)平均濃度下降 9.1%。第一批國家公園正式設立。生態環境質量明顯改善。

      —Ecological conservation was enhanced. Thanks to further steps taken to prevent and control pollution, the discharge of major pollutants continued to fall and the average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) dropped by 9.1 percent in cities at and above the prefecture level. The first group of national parks were officially established. Significant improvements were made in the quality of the environment.

      ——人民生活水平穩步提高。居民人均可支配收入實際增長8.1%。脫貧攻堅成果得到鞏固和拓展?;攫B老、基本醫療、社會救助等保障力度加大。教育改革發展邁出新步伐。新開工改造城鎮老舊小區 5.6 萬個,惠及近千萬家庭。

      —Living standards rose steadily. Per capita disposable income increased by 8.1 percent in real terms. Achievements in poverty alleviation were consolidated and further expanded. Inputs in basic elderly care, basic medical care, and social assistance were increased. New steps were taken in the reform and development of education. Renovations began on 56,000 old urban residential communities, benefiting close to 10 million households.

      ——疫情防控成果持續鞏固。落實常態化防控舉措,疫苗全程接種覆蓋率超過 85%,及時有效處置局部地區聚集性疫情,保障了人民生命安全和身體健康,維護了正常生產生活秩序。

      —Our gains in Covid-19 response were consolidated. Implementation of control measures became routine, and over 85 percent of the population received a full course of vaccination. Local outbreaks were suppressed in an effective and quick manner. By making these efforts, we ensured the health and safety of the people and maintained normal order in work and life.


      Reflecting on the past year, we can see that our achievements did not come easily. While the economy continued to recover from major shocks including Covid-19, many new changes occurred in and outside of China, and the difficulty of keeping the economy running stably mounted. In the face of such difficulty, we fully implemented the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, followed the guiding principles of the Central Economic Work Conference; applied the new development philosophy in full, in the right way, and in all fields of endeavor; took solid steps to ensure stability on six key fronts and security in six key areas, and made cross- and counter-cyclical adjustments with macro policies. We thus effectively dealt with all risks and challenges that arose. Our main work over the past year was as follows.


      1. We kept macro policy consistent and targeted and kept the major economic indicators within the appropriate range.


      Our macro policies facilitated cross-cyclical adjustments and sustained the level of support necessary for economic recovery. We also took into account the need to leave ample policy space for meeting difficulties and challenges this year.

      We established a regular mechanism to directly allocate budgetary funds to prefecture- and county-level governments and placed 2.8 trillion yuan of central government funding under this mechanism. We also improved the way local governments issue and use special-purpose bonds.


      We implemented a prudent monetary policy to good effect and lowered required reserve ratios twice to facilitate the reduction of loan interest rates. We took well-considered steps to defuse local government debt risks and dealt prudently with major financial risks. We intensified policies to stabilize and expand employment, took solid measures to ensure employment for key groups like college graduates, and encouraged business startups and innovation. We took stronger steps to keep supply and prices of major commodities stable and to tackle supply shortages in coal and electric power.


      Over the course of last year, all major macroeconomic indicators stayed in line with projected targets, the deficit-to-GDP ratio and macro leverage ratio decreased, and China’s economy remained one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.


      2. We refined and implemented policies for easing the difficulties of businesses and consolidated the foundation of economic recovery.


      As over one hundred million market entities have given several hundred million people the opportunity to go into business or secure employment, we have continued with the supportive macro-policy roadmaps and approaches that have proved effective since the epidemic began. Tax and fee reductions introduced last year totaled more than one trillion yuan. In addition, tax payments were postponed for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in manufacturing as well as coal-fired power plants and heating-supply enterprises as a temporary measure.

      實踐表明,減稅降費是助企紓困直接有效的辦法,實際上也是"放水養魚"、涵養稅源, 2013 年以來新增的涉稅市場主體去年納稅達到4.76萬億元。

      Tax and fee reductions have proved a direct and effective way of helping enterprises ease their difficulties. In reality, they also help nurture business growth and cultivate sources of tax revenue. Last year, revenue generated from taxpaying market entities registered since 2013 reached 4.76 trillion yuan.

      加強鐵路、公路、航空、海運、港口等運輸保障。加大對受疫情影響嚴重行業企業信貸投放,繼續執行小微企業貸款延期還本付息和信用貸款支持政策,銀行業金融機構普惠小微企業貸款增長27.3%,大型商業銀行普惠小微企業貸款增幅超過 40%,企業綜合融資成本穩中有降。

      We strengthened the capacity of railway, highway, aviation and maritime transportation as well as harbors. We boosted the credit supply to industries and enterprises severely affected by Covid-19. We continued policies for micro and small businesses to defer principal and interest repayments on loans and take out more collateral-free loans. Inclusive finance lending to micro and small business by financial institutions increased by 27.3 percent, with the figure rising to over 40 percent for large commercial banks, and overall financing costs of businesses dropped steadily.

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